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Saturday, August 7, 2010

Linux Directory Structure and Meaning

Parts of a Unix directory tree. See the FSSTND standard (File system standard)

/            Root
|---root        The home directory for the root user
|---home        Contains the user's home directories
|    |----ftp        Users include many services as listed here
|    |----httpd
|    |----samba
|    |----user1
|    |----user2
|---bin            Commands needed during bootup that might be needed by normal users
|---sbin        Like bin but commands are not intended for normal users.  Commands run by LINUX.
|---proc        This filesystem is not on a disk.  Exists in the kernels imagination (virtual).  This directory
|    |            Holds information about kernel parameters and system configuration.
|    |----1        A directory with info about process number 1.  Each process
|                has a directory below proc. 
|---usr            Contains all commands, libraries, man pages, games and static files for normal
|    |            operation.
|    |----bin        Almost all user commands.  some commands are in /bin or /usr/local/bin.
|    |----sbin        System admin commands not needed on the root filesystem.  e.g., most server
|    |            programs.
|    |----include    Header files for the C programming language.  Should be below /user/lib for
|    |            consistency.
|    |----lib        Unchanging data files for programs and subsystems
|    |----local        The place for locally installed software and other files.
|    |----man        Manual pages
|    |----info        Info documents
|    |----doc        Documentation for various packages
|    |----tmp
|    |----X11R6        The X windows system files.  There is a directory similar to usr below this
|    |            directory.
|    |----X386        Like X11R6 but for X11 release 5
|---boot        Files used by the bootstrap loader, LILO.  Kernel images are often kept here.
|---lib            Shared libraries needed by the programs on the root filesystem
|    |----modules     Loadable kernel modules, especially those needed to boot the system after
|             disasters.
|---dev            Device files for devices such as disk drives, serial ports, etc.
|---etc            Configuration files specific to the machine.
|    |----skel        When a home directory is created it is initialized with files from this directory
|    |----sysconfig     Files that configure the linux system for networking, keyboard, time, and more.
|---var            Contains files that change for mail, news, printers log files, man pages, temp files
|    |----file
|    |----lib        Files that change while the system is running normally
|    |----local        Variable data for programs installed in /usr/local.
|    |----lock        Lock files.  Used by a program to indicate it is using a particular device or file
|    |----log        Log files from programs such as login and syslog which logs all logins,
|    |            logouts, and other system messages.
|    |----run        Files that contain information about the system that is valid until the system is
|    |            next booted
|    |----spool        Directories for mail, printer spools, news and other spooled work.
|    |----tmp        Temporary files that are large or need to exist for longer than they should in
|    |            /tmp.
|    |----catman    A cache for man pages that are formatted on demand
|---mnt            Mount points for temporary mounts by the system administrator.
|---tmp            Temporary files.  Programs running after bootup should use /var/tmp.

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